Infection by Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (GFLV), a bipartite RNA virus of positive polarity belonging to the Comoviridae family, causes extensive cytopathic. The specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index is solely determined by the viral coat protein. There are plenty of plant viruses that no one has heard of, but few are as widely known as grapevine fanleaf virus. Learn how to identify a sick.

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This suggests that MP was transported by a still-unknown mechanism to the plasma membrane where it associated with plasmodesmata to form tubules containing virus particles 54 ; unpublished results.

Such parallelism is not unexpected since CPMV and GFLV belong to the same family and share many common features, among them a similar genome organization 2. In plants, BFA has been shown to block the secretion of cell wall polysaccharides and proteins 1634 On the other hand, the antibiotic cerulenin targets the type II fatty acid synthase and is therefore a potent inhibitor of de novo lipid synthesis 48 Bottom fractions enriched in ER rather than Golgi markers contained also the and kDa VPg precursors and electron microscopy of these fractions revealed the presence of numerous membraneous vesicles.

Fanleaf DegenerationPurdue University. Poor vine health also predisposes vines to winter injury and death in colder climates. Nepoviruses Viral grape diseases Viral plant disease stubs. A total of 10 6 protoplasts were electroporated with 1 to 2.

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Fruit girus are reduced in size and number with irregular ripening. Photos courtesy of Canadian Food Inspection Agency. In spring, affected plants in a vineyard can readily be spotted from a distance.

Among these species, only the and kDa proteins clearly sedimented into the gradient Fig.

Grapevine Fanleaf Degeneration Disease – eXtension

PDB entry 2y26 [1]. Photo courtesy of William M. Staining and observations were as described elsewhere The arrowheads in panels B, C, E, and F indicate the perinuclear viral compartment.

Ultrastructural analysis of the GFLV-induced perinuclear compartment.

The external surface of the vesicles was systematically coated with electron-dense material Fig. Arrowheads, Virjs N, nucleus; P, plastids; M, mitochondria. In spite of being derived from the same polyprotein as CP, the MP was rarely detected anywhere else than in tubules. Due to the observed variation in protoplast viability, we chose to test the effect of the drugs on viral replication by calculating the percentage of infected cells as previously described elsewhere 11 rather than by Northern blot analysis.

Grapevine fanleaf virus

Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus P38 putative movement protein is not transiently expressed and is a stable final maturation product in vivo. They were variable in number and in size, and graevine perinuclear distribution of these VPg-containing aggregates could be clearly visualized in the three-dimensional reconstruction shown in Fig.


To compare the distribution of the viral proteins involved in replication with that of proteins involved in movement and encapsidation, we analyzed the intracellular distribution of the movement protein 2B MP and the coat protein 2C CPboth of which are dispensable for replication Remodeling the endoplasmic reticulum by poliovirus infection and by individual viral proteins: N, nucleus; Nu, nucleolus.

The arrows in panels E and F indicate the CP labeling in the nucleoplasm.

Grapevine Fanleaf Virus Replication Occurs on Endoplasmic Reticulum-Derived Membranes

Immunocytochemical localization of TYMV-coded structural and non-structural proteins by the protein A-gold technique. To demonstrate whether the ER-derived aggregates were involved in viral replication, double-labeling experiments were performed with anti-dsRNA and anti-VPg antibodies.

Formation of the poliovirus replication complex requires coupled virys translation, vesicle production, and viral RNA synthesis. At 48 h postelectroporation, protoplasts were fixed with glutaraldehyde as follows.

To further characterize the GFLV-induced vesicles, crude extracts of healthy and infected T-BY2 protoplasts were fractionated in a linear sucrose gradient.

Cerulenin, a drug inhibiting de novo synthesis of phospholipids, also inhibited GFLV replication. Based on their diameter ca.